Stoke-on-Trent Local History

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Stoke - Gazetteers and Directories

STOKE

Pigot & Co's 1828/9 Directory of Staffordshire
Pigot & Co's 1841 Directory of Staffordshire
William White, Sheffield. "1851, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire"  
Wilson's 1870-2 Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales
Bartholomew's 1887 Gazetteer of the British Isles
1893 advertising and trade journal - A descriptive account of The Potteries (illustrated)
1898 Cassell's 'Gazetteer of Great Britain & Ireland'

1907 Staffordshire Sentinel 'Business Reference Guide to The Potteries, Newcastle & District'


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Pigot & Co's 1828/9 Directory of Staffordshire

"STOKE-UPON-TRENT, as its name implies, is pleasantly situated upon that river, in an extensive and populous parish, to which it gives name, about one mile and a half east of Newcastle, upon the sides of the Grand Trunk canal. The town contains many handsome houses, wharfs, warehouses and earthenware manufactories, and is deemed the parish town of the potteries. 
The church, which is and ancient building of stone, will be taken down when the new edifice, which is erecting under the auspices of the parliamentary commissioners, shall be perfected. The church contains a handsome monument to the memory of the late Josiah Wedgwood who was interred here in 1795. In 1815 a very handsomer and commodious national school, for the education of five hundred children was erected at this place, at the cost of nearly 1,000, chiefly raised by subscription. Here are also two meeting houses for dissenters. 
The first steam engine for grinding burned flint for the use of the potters was established here.
About mid-way between Stoke and Newcastle is 'Cliffe vill' the seat of John Tomlinson, Esq; and at Penkhull is 'the Mount,' the seat of Josiah Spode, Esq.
The market is Saturday and a wake is held the first Sunday in August annually. 
The whole parish of Stoke, by the returns for 1821, contained 29,223 inhabitants; and the parish, exclusive of its several extensive dependencies, 3,969 of that number."

 


Pigot & Co's 1841 Directory of Staffordshire

"STOKE-UPON-TRENT is a market town, and by the reform bill created a borough, entitled to return two members to parliament, in the extensive parish of its name, about one mile and a half east from Newcastle-under-Lyme; situate, as it's name implies, upon the river Trent, and upon the banks of the Grand Trunk Canal. This parish, at present including a district of more than seventeen square miles, and originally of much greater extent, owes its increase in population and opulence to the establishment of numerous potteries, for which its situation, on a navigable river and a great canal, renders it favourable, and for which it has for many years been distinguished. 

The town contains many handsome houses, commodious wharfs and warehouse, and extensive china and earthenware manufactories, - and is deemed the parish town of the Potteries. The first steam-engine for grinding burnt flint, for the use of the potters, was erected in Stoke. The parish is within the jurisdiction of the county magistrates, and the police is under the superintendence of commissioners appointed by an act of parliament - under the provision of which, also, a chief bailiff is elected, who convenes and presides at all meetings of the inhabitants.

The old church, dedicated to St Peter, has given place to a handsome new one, erected in 1826; it is in the later style of English architecture, and contains one thousand six hundred sittings. The handsome monument erected in the old church to the memory of the highly respected Josiah Wedgwood, Esq., where he was interred in 1795, has been put up in the new church. The benefice is a rectory. Throughout the parish there are places of worship for the various classes of dissenters; and in the town is a handsome and commodious school, in which upwards of five hundred children are instructed upon the national plan. The market is held on Saturday, and an annual wake on the first Monday in August."

 


William White, Sheffield. "1851, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire"  

"The parish of Stoke-upon-Trent comprises about two thirds of the populous district called the Staffordshire Potteries, including all the towns and villages lying south of Burslem and east of Newcastle-under-Lyme. Though now containing upwards of 55,000 inhabitants and about 12,000 acres of land, it was formerly of much greater extent, until it was reduced by an Act of Parliament, passed in 1807, entitled 'An Act for separating the Chapelries and Chapels of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Burslem, Whitmore, Bucknall-cum-Bagnall, and Norton-in-the-Moors from the Rectory and Parish Church of Stoke-upon-Trent, and for making them five distinct rectories'.
Stoke-upon-Trent, the capital, although not the largest town of the borough and parish to which it gives name, is pleasantly situated in the township or liberty of Penkhull-with-Boothen, in a picturesque valley, on the banks of the River Trent and the Trent & Mersey Canal, one and a half miles E of Newcastle-under-Lyme. 

What was properly called Stoke, until about 70 years ago, consisted of only five houses, but the name is now applied to the town, situate at a short distance to the west, under the lofty hill on which stands the large village of Penkhull, which appears to be one of the oldest seats of the earthenware manufacture, for it had three brown ware potteries in 1600. Here are several of the largest porcelain and earthenware manufacturies in the Potteries, and a commodious range of warehouses and wharfs on the Trent & Mersey Canal. Here also are the head offices and station of the North Staffordshire Railway

The other principal villages in the township of Penkhull-with-Boothen, and their distances from Stoke are:
Boothen, one mile S, belonging chiefly to Sir Thomas FF Boughey, Bart.
Basford, one mile NW where there are extensive brick and tile works.
Hartshill, one mile W where there is a handsome new church.
Oak Hill, one mile S, the seat of MD Hollins, Esq.
Trent Vale, one and a half miles S, which has several handsome villas, and extends to Hanford Bridge, and was formerly called Black Lion.
Cliffe Ville, half a mile W, the seat of FW Tomlinson, Esq.
Fenton, in the two manors and liberties of Fenton Culvert and Fenton Vivian, forms a populous suburb, extending from Stoke to Longton, with many neat houses and large china and earthenware manufactories, and the hamlets of Lane Delph, Foley, and Sideaway. 
Botteslow, is a small liberty, about two miles SE of Hanley, with a number of scattered farmhouses and three collieries."

 



Wilson's 1870-2 Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales

STOKE-UPON-TRENT, a town, a parish, and a district, in Stafford. The town stands on the river Trent, the Grand Junction canal, and the North Staffordshire railway, at or near junctions of four branch railways, 2 miles ESE of Newcastle-under-Lyne; grew around the pottery-works established by Wedgewood; was made a parliamentary borough by the reform act of 1832; consists, as a town, of the townships of Penkhull, Boothen, Clayton, and Seabridge; comprehends, as a borough, most of Penkhull township, all Boothen, Burslem, Fentons, Hanley, Longton and Lane-End, Shelton, and Tunstall townships, Rushton-Grange ville, and Sneyd hamlet; sends two members to parliament; may be regarded, in its borough capacity, as mainly identical with the Potteries region; and, as a town, has a head post-office, a r. station with telegraph, a banking office, six chief inns, a town hall and market house of 1834, a bronze statue of Wedgewood set up in 1863, a church rebuilt in 1826, six dissenting chapels, a Roman Catholic chapel, an endowed school, the North Staffordshire infirmary built in 1866, a workhouse, and charities 110. The r. station is in the Tudor style, and was built at a cost of 150,000. The amount of property and income tax charged for the borough in 1863 was 29,375. Electors in 1833, 1,349; in 1863, 2,591. Pop. of the town proper, in 1851, 9,649; in 1861, 11,390. Houses, 2,240. Pop. of the borough, in 1851, 84,027; in 1861, 101,207. Houses, 19,855. The parish contains the town-proper and the townships of Shelton, Hanley, Bucknall, Bucknall-Eaves, Bagnell, Fentons, Botteslow, and Longton and Lane-End; and is cut ecclesiastically into the sections of Stoke, Fenton, Hartshill, Penkhull, Trent-Vale, Hanley, Northwood, and Wellington. Acres, 10,490. Pop. in 1851, 57,942; in 1861, 71,308. Houses, 14,078. The head-living is a rectory in the diocese of Lichfield. Value, 2,717.* Patron, F. W. Tomlinson, Esq. The other livings are separately noticed. The district is conterminate with the parish; and is cut into the sub-districts of Stoke, Shelton, Han1ey, Fenton, and Longton. Poor rates in 1863, 22,700. Marriages in 1863, 836; births, 3,178, -of which 212 were illegitimate; deaths, 1,981,-of which 1,638 were at ages under 5 years, and 22 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 7,404: births, 26,680; deaths, 16,940. The places of worship, in 1851, were 16 of the Church of England, with 13,562 sittings; 1 of English Presbyterians, with 450 s.; 6 of Independents, with 2,545 s.; 3 of Baptists, with 485 s.; 2 of Quakers, with 400 s.; 8 of Wesleyans, with 4,197 s.; 9 of New Connexion Methodists, with 5,516 s.; 3 of Primitive Methodists, with 488 s.; 1 of the Wesleyan Association, with 75 s.; 1 of the New Church, with 35 s.; 1 of Brethren, with 125 s.; 1 undefined, with 50 s.; and 2 of Roman Catholics, with 645 s. The schools were 29 public day-schools, with 3,539 scholars; 98 private day-schools, with 2,517 s.; 43 Sunday schools, with 8,777 s.; and 10 evening schools for adults, with 220 s.



Bartholomew's 1887 Gazetteer of the British Isles

Stoke upon Trent, parl. and mun. bor., market town, and par., Staffordshire, on river Trent and on the Trent and Mersey Canal, 14 miles N. of Stafford by rail - par., 12,818 ac., pop. 104,313; parl. bor., pop. 64,091; mun. bor., 1660 ac., pop. 19,261; 2 Banks. Market-day, Saturday. Stoke upon Trent grew around the pottery works erected by Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795), and is a seat of the china and earthenware mfr. Encaustic tiles and tesselated pavements are extensively made. Stoke upon Trent was made a parl. bor. (with limits including the mun. bors. of Burslem, Hanley, and Longton, and other parts of the Potteries district) in 1832, and a mun. bor. in 1874. It returns 1 member to Parliament; it returned 2 members until 1885, when its parliamentary limits were reduced by the extension of the parliamentary limits of Newcastle under Lyme, and the formation of the new parl. bor. of Hanley.



 

1893 advertising and trade journal - A descriptive account of The Potteries (illustrated)

"If Burslem can claim to be the mother of the Potteries, and Hanley the capital, Stoke-on-Trent has certainly the right to be considered the parent of the civil and political divisions into which this busy and populous region is now portioned. In fact, in all relating to Municipal and Parliamentary matters, Stoke has always shown the way to the whole of North Staffordshire, and would, no doubt, in the opinion of the outside world, be ranked before these towns, which, in the immediate district, are regarded as standing at the head of the Potteries.

Under the Reform Act of 1832 the Parliamentary Borough of Stoke was made to embrace the townships of Burslem, Hanley, Fenton, Tunstall, and Longton, as well as many others; and, although at the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885, the district, coveted by its representation, was considerably curtailed, Stoke still exercises a very widespread influence upon the political opinion of the neighbourhood. As a seat of the pottery industry also, the town, as we shall see, enjoys a reputation second to none in the district; while, for general commercial importance, it may certainly claim to be at the head of the north division of the county.

The admirable railway facilities possessed by the town have, no doubt, contributed largely to the development of the neighbourhood. Here are situated the principal station and head offices of the North Staffordshire Railway Company, which comprise a long range of buildings, including a spacious hotel, all in the Elizabethan style, and forming an attractive feature of architectural interest to the town. By various branch lines the town is brought into communication with the leading railway systems of England, and is in the centre of a network of lines connecting all the town of the pottery district. Steam tramways ply between the town and Longton, Hanley, and Burslem, a total distance of five and three-quarter miles; while a branch line has been laid down to Oak Hill, a distance of one mile.

In 1874, Stoke-on-Trent, whose parish includes nearly the whole of the pottery district, was made a municipal borough by Royal Charter, and is now governed by a Corporation consisting of the Mayor, six Aldermen, and eighteen councilors. This body also acts as the Urban Sanitary Authority and the Burial Board. The Corporation has done much to improve the district under its control, and few towns in the kingdom of its size contain so many wide and well-paved streets and handsome public buildings as Stoke-on-Trent. The town is admirably lighted by gas, from works the property of the Corporation; while there is also a copious supply of excellent water by a private company."



1898 Cassell's 'Gazetteer of Great Britain & Ireland'

"Stoke-upon-Trent, mun. and parl. bor., U. and mkt, to, (s.), and head of Co. Co. dis., and large and populous pa. (which presents the very uncommon instance of a country pa. without a tp. of the same name) on the Trent, N.W. Staffs., 2 E of Newcastle-under-Lyme Ac. 12,607 and 121 water. 

The church of St. Peter ad Vincula was rebuilt 1826-29 in E. Eng. style It contains monuments
to Josiah Wedgwood (d. 1796), with bust by Flaxman, and Sarah, his wife (d. 1815). There are also eccl. pas. with modern churches, a Catholic church, and places of worship for various Nonconformist bodies. The town hall consists of a centre and two wings, and includes a large hall, used as an assembly room and theatre; it contains a council chamber, with mayors parlor and municipal offices, and the Keary Law Library. A portion of the building is set apart as an art gallery, and contains a loan collection from the National Art Gallery at South Kensington. The market ball (1888), In the centre of the to., is a building of red brick, In Late Tudor style, surrounding three sides of a square, and has on the south side a tower with clock. The quadrangle, covered with a glass roof, forms an outside market. The School of Science and Art, situated in Eldon Place, London Road, was erected in 1856 as a memorial to the late Herbert Minton. The Tree Library and Museum, in the London Road, was opened in 1878, the Athenaeum Committee making a free gift to the to. of their library of about 3,000 volumes, together with an extensive museum, rich in entomological and geological specimens; there is, besides, a loan collection from the South Kensington Museum. 

Facing the railway station is a bronze statue of the late Josiah Wedgwood, erected by subscription In 1883, and considered to be a faithful likeness of this distinguished potter. The to., which is regarded as the centre of the Potteries, contains some good modern houses, and various wharves and warehouses; and though the number of china and other manufactories is not great, it includes some of the most important, as well as the largest in the district.

Most of the materials are brought from a distance: china clay and stone, or decomposed granite from Cornwall, clay from Dorset, bones, borax, etc., the only necessary found in abundance on the spot being coal. The hovel, or oven, in which the wares are fired is a conspicuous feature in the various works.

The North Staffordshire Infirmary was founded at Etruria in 1815, and removed to its present site in 1868. Near the infirmary is another detached building, used as a children's hospital. There is also an institution for nurses." 



1907 Staffordshire Sentinel 'Business Reference Guide to The Potteries, Newcastle & District'

Though its population does not exceed 35,000, Stoke-on-Trent is known by name all over the world, and it is a town of -considerable importance in the Potteries. It owes its wide reputation principally to- the fact that some of the finest pottery obtainable is made within its borders.

Its local importance is due to many circumstances. It is the railway centre of the whole North Staffordshire district. The N.S. Railway Company have here their headquarters, and while all local trains radiate from Stoke, the London and North Western expresses from London to Manchester call at its busy station. Then it is also the centre of the extensive postal district of Stoke-on-Trent. It gives its name to the Parliamentary borough which also embraces Longton and Fenton; and to the Poor Law Union in which Hanley and the two towns already mentioned are comprised; while organisations covering the whole of North Staffordshire, such as the Chamber of  Commerce, the Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, &c, generally meet at the N.S. Hotel, which is probably the principal hotel in the Potteries.

Again, Stoke is a place of prominence in connection with ecclesiastical matters, and in this respect has an interesting history. It formed the centre of a huge parish which embraced practically all North Staffordshire and out of which a very large number of parishes have been created. The parish church is an imposing building standing in a spacious churchyard (which is no longer used for burials, and forms a valuable open space). It was erected in the reign of Geo. IV. at an expense of 14,000. Contributions to this large sum were received from all classes, from the Sovereign down to the workingman. The living is a rectory, and has been held by some noble churchmen, to whom Preb. H. V. Stuart, the present holder, is a worthy successor.

The business part of Stoke is very compact, but can only be reached from the Railway Station by rather circuitous routes. There is direct tramway communication from this part of the borough with Hanley in one direction; Fenton and Longton in another; Newcastle in another; and Trentham in another. At the spot where these lines meet Campbell Place - there is a statue of Colin Minton Campbell, who was a honoured citizen of Stoke; and the town possesses two other monuments - a statue in the Station Square of Josiah Wedgwood, the great potter, whose remains are buried in Stoke Churchyard; and a monument on the canal side down London Road to the memory of a tramway employee who lost his life in attempting to rescue a child from drowning.

Stoke has pleasant suburbs. Hartshill, Basford and Penkhull (all within the borough) have lofty situations and are residential districts; Oakhill is rapidly assuming the same character. At Hartshill the N.S. Infirmary and The Mount Blind and Deaf School are located.

Amongst the possessions of the Corporation are an excellent Town Hall, where the municipal business is conducted; several elementary schools, a Science and Art Institute, and education offices; a Free Library and Museum; Public Baths; a couple of Recreation Grounds (not yet laid out); a beautiful Cemetery; remunerative Markets (where business is principally done on Saturdays); valuable Gas Works; and an Electrical Undertaking which is worked in conjunction with a Refuse Destructor and promises to become a very valuable property.

Stoke is the sports centre of the Potteries. It runs a, First League football team; the Staffordshire County Cricket ground is to all intents and purposes within the borough; while the principal athletic organisation of the district the Victoria Athletic Club - holds its meetings at Stoke. The Hippodrome is a pretty and cosy music-hall. Captain Goss commands the Stoke Volunteers.

 


 

 


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