Pottery Index

index of potters initials


list of Stoke-on-Trent potters

potters backstamps

 


What does A B C mean on pottery?

 


Wartime Concentration Scheme

The "A.B.C." Pottery Firms

The Second World War proved a particularly difficult period for the British pottery industry because severe restrictions were placed on the production of decorated pottery.

Production was concentrated in a reduced number of factories in order to save materials, energy and labour as these were needed elsewhere for the war.

This “concentration” of the industry was a restructuring to allow people to leave the the pottery trade to work in the armed forces or industries in demand for the war effort.

Decorated pottery required a lot of man-hours and energy costs for extra firing in the kilns. 
These were to become luxuries generally denied to the home market, but some production would continue for sale abroad in order to earn foreign currency. 

The domestic market would soon get used to plain, undecorated tableware.

The process was initiated in the autumn of 1941, but by the summer of 1942 they were extended to restrict the sale of decorated pottery in the home market. Some restrictions were relaxed in 1945 and subsequent years but they were not fully lifted until August 1952.

  • In 1941, British pottery production was subject to a Concentration Scheme whereby individual firms were classified as: nucleus, concentrated or closed-down.

  • In 1942, maximum retail prices were set and letters such as A, B or C incorporated in the backstamp.

  • The Scheme was revised in 1945 as the 'Domestic Pottery (Manufacture and Supply) Order'  and additional letter groups BY, CY and CZ created.

For more details, see: Ten Plain Years: The British Pottery Industry 1942-1952, Kathy Niblett, Journal of the Northern Ceramic Society Volume 12 1995, pp175-213

 


Examples of Wartime Concentration Scheme licence letters

   
Crown Ducal - the trade name of A G Richardson
the mark on the right has the Wartime Concentration Scheme licence letter B


 

   
Marks of the Empire Porcelain Company
mark on the left dates March 1948
mark on the right dates January 1952


 


W R Midwinter 

Unknown Manufacturer 

Johnson Bros 

 


The following is from the 1947 Pottery Gazette Reference Book 


A BOARD OF TRADE LIST

Covering the Domestic Pottery (Manufacture and Supply) Order, 1945 j
(S.R. & O. 498).

The firms on the following pages have been licensed to make undecorated domestic earthenware under the above Order. They are grouped according to the maximum prices which may be charged for their ware, having regard to their costs of production.

Under the second schedule of the above Order, the manufacture of undecorated domestic pottery is restricted to the following articles made:—

(a) from a white or light ivory body, glazed with a colourless or white glaze;

(b) from stoneware made in the natural colour of the clay and glazed with a colourless or brown glaze, or with a brown glaze on the outside and a white or colourless glaze on the inside; or

(c) from a natural clay body with a brown glaze or colourless glaze inside and outside, or with a brown glaze on the outside and either a white glaze or a colourless glaze on the inside;

that is to say:- 

cups 
egg cups 
mugs 
beakers 
plates 
saucers 
teapots
coffee pots
jugs
meat dishes and
     vegetable dishes 
sauce boats 
cooking ware
     including pie dishes
bowls
ewers
basins
chambers
hot water bottles
   and stoppers 
rolling pins


Manufacturers in Group I must mark indelibly under the glaze, the ware controlled under this Order with the letter C, 
manufacturers in Group II with the letter B
manufacturers in Group III with the letters BY, 
and manufacturers in Group IV with the letter A. 

In addition, there are two further groups for jugs and pudding bowls only, Groups V and VI. 
Manufacturers in these groups must mark wares controlled under the Order with the letters CY and CZ respectively.


GROUP I.

Ware to be Marked with the letter C.

Wm. Adams and Sons (Potters), Ltd. Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent (for pudding bowls only)

Avon Art Pottery, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (for teapots and coffee pots only)

John Beswick, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (for teapots and coffee pots only)

Blyth Pottery (Longton), Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent

Charles H. Brannam, Ltd., Litchdon Pottery, Barnstaple, Devon.

Thomas Brian, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

T. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Ferrybridge, Yorks. (CZ for jugs and pudding bowls).

Cartwright & Edwards, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Alfred Clough, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (CZ for jugs).

Colclough China, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (A for mugs, jugs and beakers).

Coopers (Anchor Pottery), Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

The Conway Pottery Co., Ltd., Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent,

Elijah Cotton, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (CY for jugs).

Dennis (Fenton), Ltd., Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent (CZ for pudding bowls).

Devonmoor Art Pottery, Ltd., Liverton, Newton Abbot, Devon.

Donyatt Pottery, Ltd., Ilminster, Somerset.

Ellgreave Pottery Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (A for jugs and beakers),

A. T. Finney, Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Gibson & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for pudding bowls only),

A. E, Gray & Co., Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent,

T. G. Green & Co,, Ltd., Church Gresley Nr. Burton-on-Trent (for pudding bows only).

Howard Pottery Co., Ltd., Shelton. Stoke-on-Trent (for teapots only).

Johnson & Sons (Atherton), Ltd., Smallbrook Potteries, Atherton, Lanes.

David Lockhart & Sons, Ltd., 54, Cognn Street, Pollokshaws, Glasgow.

Longpark Pottery Co., Ltd., Newton Road Torquay.

Chas. W. McNay & Sons. Brldgeness Pottery, Bo'ness, Scotland (CZ for jugs).

C. T. Maling & Sons, Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 6 (CZ for jugs).

Mason, Cash & Co., Ltd., Church Gresley, Nr. Burton-on-lrent (CZ for pudding bowls).

New Hall Pottery Co., Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Price Bros. (Burslem), Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (B for mugs and. beakers and A for jugs).

Royal Aller Vale & Watcombe Pottery Art Co., St. Mary Church, Torquay,

James Sadler & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (CZ for jugs, A for beakers).

Smith & Warrilow, Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Swinnertons, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (CZ for jugs and pudding bowls).

John Tarns, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Torquay Pottery (1932), Ltd., Hele Village, Torquay.

Trent Tiles (Botteslow) Co., Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Wearside Pottery Co., Millfield, Sunderland.

J. H. Weatherby & Sons, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (for pudding bowls only).

Arthur Wood & Son (Longport), Ltd., Longport, Stoke-on-Trent (A for jugs).

 

GROUP II.

Ware to be Marked with the letter B.


Wm, Adams & Sons (Potters), Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent (C for pudding bowls).

Albert Potteries, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Geo. L. Ashworth & Bros., Ltd., Hanlev Stoke-on-Trent.

Barker Bros., Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Barlows (Longton), Ltd., Church Street, Longton.

Barratt's of Staffordshire, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Booths Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

Bovey Pottery Co., Ltd., Bovey Tracey, Devon.

Burgess & Leigh, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Cone, Thomas, Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Davison & Son, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Dunn, Bennett & Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Empire Porcelain Co., Stoke-on-Trent (A for jugs).

Furnivals (1913), Ltd., Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent.

Gibson & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (C for pudding bowls).

Globe Pottery Co., Ltd., & Ridgways (Bedford Works), Ltd., Shelton, Stoke-on-Trent.

T. G. Green & Co., Ltd., Church Gresley, Burton-on-Trent (C for pudding bowls).

Grindley Hotel Ware Co., Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

Hollinshead & Kirkham, Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

Thos. Hughes & Son, Ltd., Longport, Stoke-on-Trent.

George Jones & Sons, Ltd., Crescent Potteries, Stoke-on-Trent.

James Kent, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

John Maddock & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Myott, Son & Co., Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (for cups only).

North Staffordshire Pottery Co., Ltd.,
Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent.

Palissy Pottery, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Pountney & Co., Ltd., Fishponds, Bristol.

Price Bros. (Burslem), Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for mugs and beakers only)

A. G. Richardson & Co., Ltd., Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent.

Sampson Bridgwood & Son, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Shorter & Son, Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent.

Simpsons (Potters), Ltd., Cobridge, Stoke-on-Trent.

Sylvan Pottery, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Wade, Heath & Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only).

Washington Pottery, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

J. H. Weatherby & Sons, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (C for pudding bowls).

Wedgwood & Co., Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

A. J. Wilkinson, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

Wood & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent.

 

GROUP III.

Ware to be Marked with the letters BY.

W. H. Grindley & Co., Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

Johnson Bros. (Hanley), Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Alfred Meakin (Tunstall), Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent.

J. & G. Meakin, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent

Myott, Son & Co., Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (B for cups).

 

GROUP IV.

Ware to be Marked with the letter A.

Avon Art Pottery, Ltd., Longton. Stoke-on-Trent (C for teapots and coffee pots)

Belleek Pottery, Ltd., Belleek, Co. Fermanagh, N. Ireland.

John Beswick, Ltd., Longton. Stoke-on-Trent (C for teapots and coffee pots).

Blue John Pottery, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent

Carter, Stabler & Adams, Ltd., Poole, Dorset.

Geo, Clews & Co., Ltd., Tunstall, Stoke-on-Trent (for mugs, jugs and beakers only).

Colclough China, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (for mugs, jugs and beakers only).

W. T. Copeland & Sons, Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent.

Doulton & Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent

Ellgreave Pottery Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs and beakers only).

Empire Porcelain Co., Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only),

S. Fielding & Co., Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent.

Thos. Forester & Sons, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Grimwades, Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent.

Howard Pottery Co., Ltd., Shelton, Stoke-on-Trent (C for teapots),

Kirkham's, London Road, Stoke-on-Trent.

Lancaster & Sandland, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

Thos. Lawrence (Longton), Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

W. Moorcroft, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent

R. H. & S. L. Plant, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent.

Price Bros. (Burslem), Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only).

James Sadler & Sons, Ltd., Burslem Stoke-on-Trent (for beakers only)

Shaw & Copestake, Ltd., Longton Stoke-on-Trent. 

Shelley Potterles, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent

R. C. Southcliffe, Cardiff, S. Wales.

Wade, Heath & Co., Ltd., Burslem, Stoke on-Trent (B for jugs),

Josiah Wedgwood & Sons, Ltd., Barlaston
Stoke-on-Trent. 

Wiltshaw & Robinson, Ltd., Stoke-on-Trent.

Arthur Wood & Son (Longport),Ltd., Longport, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only),

 

GROUP V.

Ware to be Marked with the letters CY.


Elijah Cotton, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only).

 

GROUP VI.

Ware to be Marked with the letters CZ.

T. Brown & Sons, Ltd., Ferrybridge, Yorks. (for jugs and pudding bowls only).

Clokie & Co., Ltd., Castleford, Yorks. (for jugs and pudding bowls only).

Alfred Clough, Ltd., Longton, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only),

Dennis (Fenton), Ltd., Fenton, Stoke-on-Trent (for pudding bowls only),

Chas. W. McNay & Sons, Bridgeness Pottery, Bo'ness, Scotland (for jugs only).

C. T. Maling & Sons, Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, 6 (for jugs only).

Mason, Cash & Co., Ltd., Church Gresley, Nr. Burton-on-Trent (for pudding bowls only).

James Sadler & Sons, Ltd., Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs only).

Swinnertons, Ltd., Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent (for jugs and pudding bowls only).

 

 

 


Questions / Comments / Contributions? email: Steve Birks