Sampson Bridgwood & Son






 

Location and period of operation:

Sampson Bridgwood & Son

Longton

1820 (1805)

1984

 

Earthenware and china (to 1887) manufacturer in Longton, Stoke-on-Trent, England
  • Although the date of 1805 is sometimes given for a start date for this company - September 1805 was the date that Sampson's father, Samuel, died. Sampson was around 10 at the time. Entries in the Pottery Gazette Directory give 'estd. 1820

  • From around 1795 to 1799, at the Market Street Works in Lane End, Samuel Bridgwood had been partnership with his brother-in-law, Richard Johnson as Johnson & Bridgwood, earthenware manufacturers. After 1799 Johnson & Bridgwood had separate businesses. 

  • After Samuel's death in 1805 his widow Kitty Bridgwood (née Johnson) continued the business and in 1814 bought her brother's factory (Richard Johnson having been made bankrupt in 1810). 

  • Around 1820 Sampson joined his mother in managing the two factories and the business became Kitty Bridgwood & Son.  

  • In 1822 the Bridgwood/Johnson works had been sold and Sampson had been briefly jailed as an insolvent debtor.  

  • Matters improved for Sampson and by 1829 he was referred to as 'an excellent manufacturer of porcelain'. By 1841 he had three factories producing china. In the 1851 census he was recorded as employing 155 workers (64 men, 42 women, 24 boys, 25 girls). 

  • Sampson's son, Samuel, who had been involved in the business for a number of years a joined as a partner in Sampson Bridgwood & Son around 1852. At this time Sampson was 60 and his son Samuel was aged 32. 

  • In 1853 the Bridgwoods set about building a new factory - the Anchor Works. Some manufacturing started at the new works in 1854 while production also continued at the Stafford Street Works. By 1860 all work was transfered to the Anchor Works which was now complete.

  • In 1876 both Sampson and his son Samuel died. Sampson of old age (he was 84) and Samuel, a few months later, after a long illness. 

  • The business was left to Sampson Bridgwood's daughters, Martha and Mary. From 1879 the business was continued by Mary Walker (née Bridgwood) who bought out her sisters share. Mary Walker's son, George Edward Walker, joined the business in 1880 and in 1882 became a full partner along with his mother. They continued to trade as S. Bridgwood & Son. 

  • The business ran into financial difficulty and by 1887 production of china ware had stopped. In June 1890 the business was placed into receivership. The complete works was bought at auction by the potter John Aynsley.

  • In addition to their existing bone china business, Aynsley continued the Bridgwood business producing earthenware and ironstone. The company was managed in turn by John Aynsley until his death in 1907, by his son John Gerrard Aynsley until his death in 1924 and then by his son Gerrard Aynsley. 

  • In 1932 the business was incorporated as Sampson Bridgwater & Son Ltd. The directors were Gerrard Aynsley (managing director), Arthur R Swift, George Sherratt and Eric Powell.  Gerrard Aynsley retained ownership of the Anchor Works.

  • Production was permitted to continue during the Second World War under the Wartime Concentration Scheme

  • In 1944 the company purchased the Anchor Works from Gerrard Aynsley. Gerrard was replaced as managing director by Arthur Swift and by 1948 Gerrard Aynsley had retired from any active management of the business.

  • Both Arthur Swift and Gerrard Aynsley died in 1959. The 1960 Pottery Gazette Directory listed the managing director as N. N. Peck and assistant MD as C. V. Prince. As well as producing dinner and tea ware production was focused on catering ware for canteens, hospitals and hotels. 

  • In 1965 the business was bought by James Broadhurst & Sons - it continued to trade as Sampson Bridgwater & Son Ltd until 1984. 

  • In 1984 James Broadhurst & Sons Ltd was renamed Churchill Tableware Ltd and became the holding company for their various businesses. At the same time Sampson Bridgwater was renamed Churchill Hotelware Ltd. and became a subsidiary of Churchill Tableware Ltd. 



 

The historian Llewellynn Jewitt in describing the Market Street Works recorded 

"It was here that the late Mr. Sampson Bridgwood made his first start, and after noble struggles against adversity laid the foundation of his ultimate splendid  success."

Anchor Pottery

Sampson Bridgwood & Son, who were extensive manufacturers, first carried on business in the Market Street Works, and next for many years at a manufactory in Stafford Street, originally occupied by G. Forrester, which was purchased by the Commissioners of Longton and pulled down for the erection of the market buildings. 

They then removed to the Anchor Pottery (in about 1853), where they produced both china and earthenware. In china, all the usual tea, breakfast, and dessert services were made - partly for the home, but principally for the United States and Canadian markets. 

In earthenware, white granite was made for the United States, Australian and Canadian trades. The speciality was what was technically called 'Parisian granite' (stamped 'Limoges'), which has a fine hard durable body and excellent glaze.

The nineteenth-century mark used on china was an impressed stamp of the name S. BRIDGWOOD & SON. The Parisian granite bears the impressed stamp, an oval with the word LIMOGES and, in the centre, P.G. (for Parisian granite). It also bears the printed mark of an elaborate shield of arms with mantling, sceptres, etc., and the words PORCELAIN OPAQUE,

Llewellynn Jewitt "The ceramic art of Great Britain from pre-historic times down to the present day...." 1878

 

 

 


Sampson Bridgwood & Son
Anchor Pottery, Longton, Staffordshire

 The Pottery Gazette, American and Canadian Edition, January 1st 1880

 

In 1876 both Sampson and his son Samuel died and the business was left to Sampson Bridgwood's daughters, Martha and Mary. 

From 1879 the business was continued by Mary Walker (née Bridgwood) who bought out her sisters share. Mary Walker's son, George Edward Walker, joined the business in 1880 - they continued to trade as Sampson Bridgwood & Son. 

 


 


S. Bridgwood & Son
Anchor Pottery, Longton

1896 advert 

The business had run into financial difficulty and by 1887 production of china ware had stopped. In June 1890 the business was placed into receivership. The complete works was bought at auction by the potter John Aynsley and continued to trade as Sampson Bridgwood & Son. 

 


 


Sampson Bridgwood & Son's Anchor Pottery- c.1960

- click for more -

 


 

 


bone china cup & saucer, hand-enamelled with a castle scene
surrounded by gilded 'Vermicelli' border

impressed mark: 

Bridgwood
&
Son

c.1860s

 


 

 
bone china cup & saucer with blue transfer pattern & gilding

c.1884-87

 


 

     

 

Bridgwood produced a number of style of patterns  based on this one shape 

 


 


vase - transferware with hand painting & gilding 

the pattern is in the aesthetic style


S B & Son

c.1885 

photos courtesy: Donna Baskin 

 


 


plate in the Chrysanthemum pattern 

the registration number 369451 shows that the pattern was registered on the 31 January 1901 



 

 


trio produced for the department store Waring & Gillow

c.1910+ 

Waring & Gillow on Wikipedia 


Anchor China
Bridgwood
England

mark on the cup

 


Waring & Gillow
Oxford St
London

mark on the plate

 


 

 


plate in the popular Indian Tree pattern

c.1960s


Made in England
Sampson Bridgwood
Lifelong Ironstone

 


 

 


1970s style

These cups and saucers have the marks of Broadhurst and of Bridgwood
 

1965 the Bridgwood business was bought by James Broadhurst & Sons  
- it continued to trade as Sampson Bridgwater & Son Ltd until 1984. 


England
Broadhurst

mark on the cups 

 


Made in England
Sampson Bridgwood
Lifelong Ironstone

mark on the saucers

 


 

Marks used on ware for identification:

Semi-Porcelain 

Porcelaine Opaque

Limoges PG

Parisian Granite 

Although Bridgwood & Son stopped producing china in 1887 they continued to use tradenames such as 'semi-porcelain' , 'porcelaine opaque' and 'limoges' for their earthenwares to give an appearance of fine ware.

 


 

BRISGWOOD & SON

S BRIDGWOOD & SON

impressed name marks mid 19th C 

 


 


S B & S

printed mark with crown above a castle
and five lions

c.1853+ 

 


 


Bridgwoods China

CARNATION is the pattern name

mark introduced from 1884
production of china ceased around 1887

(1917 directory lists this as 'old mark')

 


 


Limoges
PG

 'Parisian Granite' ware
1870+ 


 


S B & Son 

1885+

 


 


Porcelain Opaque
Bridgwood & Son 

mark incorprating the Royal Arms

1885-1891


Porcelain Opaque
Bridgwood & Son 

1885-1891


Porcelain Opaque
Trade Mark
Bridgwood & Son 
England

1891 +

marks with 'England' are 1891+ 

 

    


 


Anchor China
Bridgwood
England

1910+


Anchor China
S B & S
England

1910+

'DAWLISH' is the pattern namek 

Bridwood stopped producing bone china in 1887
'Anchor China' was a trade name for fine earthenware 

 


 


Semi-Porcelain 
Bridgwood & Son
Made in England 

1912-32


Semi-Porcelain 
Sampson Bridgwood 
& Son Ltd
Made in England 

'Ltd' added from 1933 onward


Sampson Bridgwood 
& Son Ltd
Made in England 

1950 +

 

       


 


Vitrified 
Sampson 
Bridgwood 
Made in England 

1961 +

Mark used on catering ware

 


 


Made in England
Sampson Bridgwood
Lifelong Ironstone

1965-84


Bridgwood
Sampsonite
Vitrified Hotel Ware

c. late 1970s - 1984

 

   

 

 


The London Gazette
25 September 1821

 
notice of Sampson Bridwood's petition to be made bankrupt

Sampson Bridgwood was made insolvent in 1822 and in that
year spent some time in Stafford Gaol as an insolvent debtor

  

The historian Llewellynn Jewitt in describing the Market Street Works recorded "It was here that the late Mr. Sampson Bridgwood made his first start, and after noble struggles against adversity laid the foundation of his ultimate splendid  success."

Llewellynn Jewitt "The ceramic art of Great Britain from pre-historic times down to the present day...." 1878

 


 

The London Gazette
11 July 1890

 


notice of payment scheme to debtor's Mary Walker and her son George Edward Walker (trading as S. Bridgwood & Son) 

the debt was discharged by selling the Anchor Pottery business to John Aynsley 

 


 


Sampson Bridgwood & Son's Anchor Pottery- c.1960

- click for more -

 


Questions, comments, contributions? email: Steve Birks